Library of Additional Resources

Staff Training Tools (PDF format)

Websites of Interest

Care Models and Conceptual Tools (PDF format)

Clinical Care Tools (PDF format)

Literature Review of Non-Pharmacological Interventions for Dementia Care


  1. Ayalon, Liat, et al. "Effectiveness of nonpharmacological interventions for the management of neuropsychiatric symptoms in patients with dementia: a systematic review." Archives of Internal Medicine 166.20 (2006): 2182.
  2. Baillon, Sarah, et al. "A comparison of the effects of Snoezelen and reminiscence therapy on the agitated behaviour of patients with dementia."International journal of geriatric psychiatry 19.11 (2004): 1047-1052.
  3. Beattie, E. R., D. L. Algase, and J. Song. "Keeping wandering nursing home residents at the table: improving food intake using a behavioral communication intervention." Aging & Mental Health 8.2 (2004): 109.
  4. Bédard, Annick, et al. "Reducing verbal agitation in people with dementia: Evaluation of an intervention based on the satisfaction of basic needs." Aging & Mental Health 15.7 (2011): 855-865.
  5. Boehm, Susan, et al. "Behavioral analysis and nursing interventions for reducing disruptive behaviors of patients with dementia." Applied Nursing Research 8.3 (1995): 118-122.
  6. Borbasi, Sally, et al. "Report of an evaluation of a Nurse-led Dementia Outreach Service for people with the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia living in residential aged care facilities." Perspectives in Public Health131.3 (2011): 124-130.
  7. Burgio, Louis, et al. "Environmental "white noise": An intervention for verbally agitated nursing home residents." The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences 51.6 (1996): P364-P373.
  8. Chang, Fang-Yu, et al. "The effect of a music programme during lunchtime on the problem behaviour of the older residents with dementia at an institution in Taiwan." Journal of clinical nursing 19.7-8 (2010): 939-948.
  9. Chatterton, Wendy, Felicity Baker, and Kylie Morgan. "The Singer or the Singing: Who Sings Individually to Persons With Dementia and What Are the Effects?." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 25.8 (2010): 641-649.
  10. Choi, Ae-Na, et al. "Effects of group music intervention on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia: a pilot-controlled trial."International Journal of Neuroscience 119.4 (2009): 471-481.
  11. Chrzescijanski, Deirdre, Wendy Moyle, and Debra Creedy. "Reducing dementia-related aggression through a staff education intervention." Dementia6.2 (2007): 271-286.
  12. Clark, Lipe, and Bilbrey. Use of music to decrease aggressive behaviors in people with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing. 24.7 (1998) 10-17.
  13. Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska, and Perla Werner. "Typology of disruptive vocalizations in older persons suffering from dementia." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 12.11 (1997): 1079-1091.
  14. Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska, et al. "Can agitated behavior of nursing home residents with dementia be prevented with the use of standardized stimuli?." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 58.8 (2010): 1459-1464.
  15. Cohen-Mansfield, Marx, Dakheel-Ali, and Thein. “The use and utility of specific nonpharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms in dementia: an exploratory study.” The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. (2015) Feb;23(2):160-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jagp.2014.06.006. Epub 2014 Jun 26. PubMed PMID: 25081819; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4277496.
  16. Collet, Janine, et al. "Efficacy of integrated interventions combining psychiatric care and nursing home care for nursing home residents: a review of the literature." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 25.1 (2010): 3-13.
  17. Denney, Ann. "Quiet music: an intervention for mealtime agitation?." Journal of gerontological nursing 23.7 (1997): 16-23.
  18. Deudon, Audrey, et al. "Non-pharmacological management of behavioural symptoms in nursing homes." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 24.12 (2009): 1386-1395.
  19. Finnema, Evelyn, et al. "The effects of emotion-oriented approaches in the care for persons suffering from dementia: a review of the literature." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 15.2 (2000): 141-161.
  20. Fitzsimmons, Suzanne, and Linda L. Buettner. "Therapeutic recreation interventions for need-driven dementia-compromised." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 17.6 (2002): 367-381.
  21. Fitzsimmons, Suzanne, and Linda L. Buettner. "Therapeutic recreation interventions for need-driven dementia-compromised." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 17.6 (2002): 367-381.
  22. Fung, Jo Kamen KM, Hector WH Tsang, and Raymond CK Chung. "A systematic review of the use of aromatherapy in treatment of behavioral problems in dementia." Geriatrics & gerontology international 12.3 (2012): 372-382.
  23. Gerdner, Linda A., Kathleen C. Buckwalter, and David Reed. "Impact of a psychoeducational intervention on caregiver response to behavioral problems."Nursing Research 51.6 (2002): 363-374.
  24. Gitlin, Laura N., et al. "A biobehavioral home-based intervention and the well-being of patients with dementia and their caregivers." JAMA: the journal of the American Medical Association 304.9 (2010): 983-991.
  25. Gormley, Lyons, and Howard. “Behavioural management of aggression in dementia: a randomized controlled trial.” Age and Ageing 30 (2001): 141–5.
  26. Hammar, Lena M., et al. "The impact of caregivers' singing on expressions of emotion and resistance during morning care situations in persons with dementia: An intervention in dementia care." Journal of clinical nursing 20.7-8 (2011): 969-978.
  27. Hansen, N. Viggo, T. Jorgensen, and L. Ortenblad. "Massage and touch for dementia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 4 (2006).
  28. Haupt, M., A. Karger, and M. Jänner. "Improvement of agitation and anxiety in demented patients after psychoeducative group intervention with their caregivers." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 15.12 (2000): 1125-1129.
  29. Hodgkinson, Brent, et al. "Managing the wandering behaviour of people living in a residential aged care facility." International Journal of Evidence-Based Healthcare 5.4 (2007): 406-436.
  30. Holmes, Clive, et al. "Lavender oil as a treatment for agitated behaviour in severe dementia: a placebo controlled study." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 17.4 (2002): 305-308.
  31. Kolanowski, Ann, and Mark Litaker. "Social interaction, premorbid personality, and agitation in nursing home residents with dementia." Archives of psychiatric nursing 20.1 (2006): 12-20.
  32. Kolanowski, Ann M., Kathy C. Richards, and Sheila C. Sullivan. "Derivation of an intervention for need-driven behavior. Activity preferences of persons with dementia." Journal of gerontological nursing 28.10 (2002): 12-15.
  33. Kolanowski, Ann M., Mark Litaker, and Linda Buettner. "Efficacy of theory-based activities for behavioral symptoms of dementia." Nursing Research 54.4 (2005): 219-228.
  34. Kolanowski, Ann, et al. "A Randomized Clinical Trial of Theory-Based Activities for the Behavioral Symptoms of Dementia in Nursing Home Residents." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 59.6 (2011): 1032-1041.
  35. Konno, R., Kang, H. S., & Makimoto, K. (2014). A best‐evidence review of intervention studies for minimizing resistance‐to‐care behaviours for older adults with dementia in nursing homes. Journal of advanced nursing, 70(10), 2167-2180.
  36. Kovach, Christine R., Jeffrey R. Cashin, and Linda Sauer. "Deconstruction of a complex tailored intervention to assess and treat discomfort of people with advanced dementia." Journal of advanced nursing 55.6 (2006): 678-688.
  37. Lancioni, Giulio E., et al. "Persons with moderate Alzheimer's disease improve activities and mood via instruction technology." American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 24.3 (2009): 246-257.
  38. Lantz, Melinda S., Eric N. Buchalter, and Lucia McBee. "The wellness group: a novel intervention for coping with disruptive behavior in elderly nursing home residents." The Gerontologist 37.4 (1997): 551-557.
  39. Ledger, Alison J., and Felicity A. Baker. "An investigation of long-term effects of group music therapy on agitation levels of people with Alzheimer's Disease."Aging and Mental Health 11.3 (2007): 330-338.
  40. Lee, Y., and S. Kim. "Effects of indoor gardening on sleep, agitation, and cognition in dementia patients-a pilot study." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 23.5 (2008): 485-489.
  41. Libin, Alexander, and Jiska Cohen-Mansfield. "Therapeutic robocat for nursing home residents with dementia: preliminary inquiry." American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 19.2 (2004): 111-116.
  42. Lichtenberg, Peter A., et al. "Pilot study of behavioral treatment in dementia care units." The Gerontologist 45.3 (2005): 406-410.
  43. Lin, Pamela Wan-ki, et al. "Efficacy of aromatherapy (Lavandula angustifolia) as an intervention for agitated behaviours in Chinese older persons with dementia: a cross-over randomized trial." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 22.5 (2007): 405-410.
  44. Lin, Li-Chan, et al. "Using Acupressure and Montessori-Based Activities to Decrease Agitation for Residents with Dementia: A Cross-Over Trial." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 57.6 (2009): 1022-1029.
  45. Lin, Yu, et al. "Effectiveness of group music intervention against agitated behavior in elderly persons with dementia." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 26.7 (2011): 670-678.
  46. Lou, Meei-Fang. "The use of music to decrease agitated behaviour of the demented elderly: the state of the science." Scandinavian journal of caring sciences 15.2 (2001): 165-173.
  47. Matthews, Ernest A., Gerald A. Farrell, and A. M. Blackmore. "Effects of an environmental manipulation emphasizing client-centred care on agitation and sleep in dementia sufferers in a nursing home." Journal of Advanced Nursing24.3 (1996): 439-447.
  48. McCallion, Toseland, and Freeman. “An evaluation of a Family Visit Education Program.” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 47 (1999): 203–14.
  49. McGilton, Katherine S., et al. "A systematic review of the effectiveness of communication interventions for health care providers caring for patients in residential care settings." Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 6.3 (2009): 149-159.
  50. Niu, Yi-Xuan, et al. "Cognitive stimulation therapy in the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms in Alzheimer's disease: a randomized controlled trial." Clinical rehabilitation 24.12 (2010): 1102-1111.
  51. Nomura, Michie, et al. "Empowering older people with early dementia and family caregivers: A participatory action research study." International journal of nursing studies 46.4 (2009): 431-441.
  52. O'Connor, Daniel W., et al. "Psychosocial treatments of behavior symptoms in dementia: a systematic review of reports meeting quality standards."International Psychogeriatrics 21.2 (2009): 225.
  53. O'Neil, Maya E., and Michele Freeman. A systematic evidence review of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioral symptoms of dementia. Department of Veterans Affairs, 2011.
  54. Opie, Janet, Richard Rosewarne, and Daniel W. O'Connor. "The efficacy of psychosocial approaches to behaviour disorders in dementia: a systematic literature review." Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry 33.6 (1999): 789-799.
  55. Orrell, Martin, et al. "A cluster randomised controlled trial to reduce the unmet needs of people with dementia living in residential care." International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 22.11 (2007): 1127-1134.
  56. Paukert, Amber L., et al. "Peaceful Mind: an open trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for anxiety in persons with dementia." International Psychogeriatrics22.06 (2010): 1012-1021.
  57. Politis, Antonios M., et al. "A randomized, controlled, clinical trial of activity therapy for apathy in patients with dementia residing in long-term care."International journal of geriatric psychiatry 19.11 (2004): 1087-1094.
  58. Reimer, Holly D., and Heather H. Keller. "Mealtimes in nursing homes: Striving for person-centered care." Journal of Nutrition for the Elderly 28.4 (2009): 327-347.
  59. Reimer, Marlene A., et al. "Special care facility compared with traditional environments for dementia care: a longitudinal study of quality of life." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 52.7 (2004): 1085-1092.
  60. Remington, Ruth. "Calming music and hand massage with agitated elderly."Nursing research 51.5 (2002): 317-323.
  61. Siders, Craig, et al. "Evidence for implementing non-pharmacological interventions for wandering." Rehabilitation Nursing 29.6 (2004): 195-206.
  62. Sloane, Philip D., et al. "Effect of Person-Centered Showering and the Towel Bath on Bathing-Associated Aggression, Agitation, and Discomfort in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 52.11 (2004): 1795-1804.
  63. Spector, Aimee, et al. "Reality Orientation for Dementia A Systematic Review of the Evidence of Effectiveness from Randomized Controlled Trials." The Gerontologist 40.2 (2000): 206-212.
  64. Sung, Huei-chuan, and Anne M. Chang. "Use of preferred music to decrease agitated behaviours in older people with dementia: a review of the literature."Journal of clinical nursing 14.9 (2005): 1133-1140.
  65. Sung, Huei-Chuan, Anne M. Chang, and Wen-Li Lee. "A preferred music listening intervention to reduce anxiety in older adults with dementia in nursing homes." Journal of clinical nursing 19.7-8 (2010): 1056-1064.
  66. Sung, Huei-chuan, et al. "A group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music to reduce anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia." International journal of geriatric psychiatry 27.6 (2012): 621-627.
  67. Suzuki, Mizue, et al. "Physical and psychological effects of 6-week tactile massage on elderly patients with severe dementia." American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias 25.8 (2010): 680-686.
  68. LAM, Chiu Wa. "A preliminary study of the effects of music therapy on agitation in Chinese patients with dementia." Hong Kong Journal of Psychiatry 16 (2006): 87-91.
  69. Van Weert, Julia, et al. "Behavioral and Mood Effects of Snoezelen Integrated into 24-Hour Dementia Care." Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53.1 (2005): 24-33.
  70. Wilkes, Lesley, et al. "Environmental approach to reducing agitation in older persons with dementia in a nursing home." Australasian Journal on Ageing 24.3 (2005): 141-145.
  71. Williams, Elisabeth, and Rhiannon Jenkins. "Dog visitation therapy in dementia care: a literature review." Nursing older people 20.8 (2008): 31.
  72. Williams, Christine L., and Ruth M. Tappen. "Effect of exercise on mood in nursing home residents with Alzheimer's disease." American journal of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias 22.5 (2007): 389-397.
  73. Woods, Diana Lynn, and Margaret Dimond. "The effect of therapeutic touch on agitated behavior and cortisol in persons with Alzheimer's disease." Biological research for nursing 4.2 (2002): 104-114.
  74. Woods, Bob, et al. "Reminiscence therapy for dementia." Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2 (2005).

Other Articles for References

  1. Bern-Klug, Mercedes, Katherine WO Kramer, and Peggy Sharr. "Depression screening in nursing homes: involvement of Social Services Departments."American Journal of Geriatric Psych 18.3 (2010): 266-275.​
  2. Zimmerman, Sheryl, et al. "Comparison of Characteristics of Nursing Homes and Other Residential Long-Term Care Settings for People With Dementia." (2012).​
  3. Declercq, Tom, et al. "Withdrawal versus continuation of chronic antipsychotic drugs for behavioural and psychological symptoms in older people with dementia." status and date: Edited (no change to conclusions), published in 4 (2013).​
  4. Jablonski, Rita A., et al. "An intervention to reduce care-resistant behavior in persons with dementia during oral hygiene: a pilot study." Special Care in Dentistry 31.3 (2011): 77-87.​
  5. Simons, Kelsey, et al. "Psychosocial assessment of nursing home residents via MDS 3.0: Recommendations for social service training, staffing, and roles in interdisciplinary care." Journal of the American Medical Directors Association13.2 (2012): 190-e9.​
  6. Jin, Hua, et al. "Comparison of longer-term safety and effectiveness of 4 atypical antipsychotics in patients over age 40: a trial using equipoise-stratified randomization." The Journal of clinical psychiatry 74.1 (2013): 10-18.​
  7. Kovach, Christine R., et al. "The Serial Trial Intervention: an innovative approach to meeting needs of individuals with dementia." Journal of gerontological nursing 32.4 (2006): 18.​
  8. McCallion, Toseland, Lacey, and Banks. “Educating nursing assistants to communicate more effectively with nursing home residents with dementia.” Gerontologist 39 (1999): 546–58.
  9. Seitz, Dallas P., et al. "Efficacy and feasibility of nonpharmacological interventions for neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia in long term care: A systematic review." Journal of the American Medical Directors Association 13.6 (2012): 503-506.​
  10. Verkaik, van Weert, and Francke. “The effects of psychosocial methods on depressed, aggressive and apathetic behaviors of people with dementia: a systematic review.” International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. 20.4 (2005): 301-314.
  11. Zimmerman, Sheryl, et al. "Psychosocial Care in Nursing Homes in the Era of the MDS 3.0: Perspectives of the Experts." Journal of Gerontological Social Work 55.5 (2012): 444-461.​